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For example, by analyzing airborne and satellite observations in a single winter, Ralph et al.


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In other studies of AR development, it is found that AR events often occur within the warm sector of an extratropical cyclone [ Neiman et al. Neiman et al. Characterized by strong northwesterly winds originating from the direction of Lake Baikal, EACS sweeps across East Asia and causes a rapid rise of surface pressure and an abrupt drop of surface temperature [ Wang , ].

Once the cold and dry airmass associated with an EACS reaches the east coast of Asia, it encounters the warm and moist airmass over the East China Sea and Sea of Japan and excite strong atmospheric disturbances in this region [ Kung and Chan , ]. The HF disturbances often appear in the form of extratropical cyclones and migrate along the northwestern boundary of the North Pacific from East Asia to Gulf of Alaska, while the LF disturbances tend to propagate equatorward.

Lau and Li [ ] further demonstrated that the disturbances brought about by an EACS may produce profound influences on the downstream atmospheric circulation regimes through interactions with other tropical and midlatitude weather systems.

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For example, Jiang et al. West Coast. Following this introduction, section 2 describes the data sets, model, and diagnosis methods used in the analysis including a revised AR detection algorithm.


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Section 3. Sections 3. Section 4 summarizes the main findings of the study. Compared with previous generations of reanalyses, MERRA has significant improvement in the representation of the atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle, partly due to its high horizontal resolution [ Rienecker et al. Surface air temperature SAT , integrated water vapor IWV , geopotential height, specific humidity, and horizontal winds for the period — are retrieved from MERRA with a native spatial resolution of 0.

The CCSM4 as configured for this study is composed of an active global spectral atmosphere model Community Atmosphere Model version 4 CAM4 for two different horizontal resolutions T85 and T, which correspond to approximately 1. The sea ice model uses climatological sea ice coverage, and the ocean model is represented with climatological, monthly averaged sea surface temperatures [ Rayner et al.

More details of the model configuration can be found in the work of Evans et al. A spectral transform dynamical core option within Community Atmosphere Model version 4, submitted to Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems , The algorithm used in the present analysis is an improved version of the one introduced by Jiang and Deng [ ].

It is based on IWV and consists of the following steps: The IWV value at any grid point Q r is retained only if it satisfies 1 where Q z mean denotes the zonal mean IWV along the same latitude of the grid point under consideration, and Q z max is the maximum value of IWV found along that latitude.

A and B are adjustable parameters, and they are assigned with values of 0. The general shape of the AR region identified through steps 1 to 3 is estimated by confining the AR region with a rectangle box of minimal size and then calculating the areal fraction the AR occupies in the box. If the fraction is less than 0. Next, the orientation of the identified AR pattern is measured by regressing the latitudes onto the longitudes and screening out all patterns, where the overall orientation is not northeast i.

Finally, the detected AR regions are defined as regions that remain after going through the five filtering steps discussed above. The climatology of the AR occurrence probability along the U. Finally, a Lanczos filter [ Duchon , ] with weights is used throughout this study to isolate fluctuation in different time scales.

The choice of weights guarantees the trade off between Gibbs phenomenon and the sharpness of stopband. Composite analysis is based on daily anomalies which are all defined with respect to the corresponding daily climatological values. The statistical significance throughout the study was obtained through a nonparametric approach i.

The composite temporal evolution of the anomalous western U. For example, the rise of AR activity starting from day 2 is well captured, although the elevated AR activity lasts until day 12, about 4 days longer than the observational counterpart. To understand the sources of discrepancies between model simulations, we examine the anomalous atmospheric circulation and moisture transport following EACS.

A relatively weaker ridge also develops to the east of the trough. The development of this persistent cyclonic circulation anomaly is clearly responsible for the formation of a narrow channel of concentrated moisture transport toward western North America that becomes visible starting from day 4. The elevated coastal AR activity in the western U. For the period day 0 to day 2, both the T85 and T models are able to simulate the general pattern of the height anomaly i.

The difference in terms of the model performance appears mostly after day 2. For example, on day 4 and day 6, the T model reproduces nicely the expansion of the negative height anomaly in the North Pacific high latitudes and the intensification of a local cyclonic circulation anomaly near western U.

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Due to the misrepresentation of the atmospheric circulation anomalies in the T85 model, the formation of the channel of the concentrated moisture transport near western U. Jiang and Deng [ ] suggest that the persistent trough structure cyclonic circulation anomaly found over the eastern North Pacific after day 2 is primarily represented by IF and LF atmospheric disturbances. Here we conduct a local height tendency analysis to further understand the processes that lead to the formation of this trough, and particularly, to explore the role of scale interactions.

Following Nakamura et al.

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The last term is the forcing due to planetary vorticity advection. We will next present the height tendency on day 1, day 3, and day 5 driven by individual forcing terms on the RHS of equation 3.

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On day 3 and day 5, II contributes at least partly to the formation of the cyclonic circulation anomaly near western U. To verify this, we compute the coefficient of projection P n following Jiang and Deng [ ], where 4. In equation 4 , n denotes the different frequency bands as defined in section 3. Two days following the cold surge, the contributions from HF, IF, and LF eddies to the total flow anomaly become comparable.

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IF disturbances start dominating the flow anomaly on day 3, and this dominance lasts until day 9. During this period, LF disturbances maintain their influence in this region second to the IF disturbances. On the contrary, HF disturbances representing synoptic scale phenomena such as extratropical cyclones contribute little to the total flow anomaly when the eastern North Pacific AR activity is enhanced i.

Furthermore, the T model reproduces the relative importance of the three frequency bands a couple of days after day 0, i. In addition to the discussion of Jiang and Deng [ ], Newman et al. West Coast are induced by ARs. The elevated AR activity is accompanied by enhanced coastal precipitation during the same period. Analysis of the North Pacific atmospheric circulation anomalies following the cold surge reveals that the development of a local cyclonic circulation anomaly west of the U.

IF disturbances are found to dominate the eastern North Pacific flow anomalies during the period when the AR activity is elevated. Local height tendency analysis suggests that the following processes contribute to the development of the local cyclonic circulation anomaly: nonlinear interactions among IF disturbances II , interactions between HF and IF disturbances HI , interactions between HF disturbances and the winter mean flow HM , and interactions between IF and the mean flow IM.

Diagnosis of the model output indicates that the better performance of the T model stems primarily from more faithful representations of the IM process and thus the IF disturbances in the T model compared to the T85 model. Finally, considering that EACS events themselves are also closely tied to IF variability in the extratropics, the importance of an accurate representation of scale interaction in a model cannot be overemphasized. The relative importance of these factors compared to the IF variability of extratropical origins in modulating western U.

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